Methodology as a tool of historical knowledge: relevant about the obvious
The purpose of the article is to actualize and clarify the main principles and methods of scientific research in their relationship and interdependence (on example of historical sciences). Research methods: analytical, historical, comparative and system-structural. Main results. The article illustrates the relationship of principles with general scientific and specific historical methods. Clarifications are made and examples of their use are given. Concise conclusions. Modern literature on methodology of science is presented mostly by the publications of methodical character. Such character of publications did not require consideration of problem aspects of methodology from their authors, in particular question about interdependence of principles and methods of scientific research. In most works such important concept as “research principles” is not examined practically, with what we cannot agree categorically. In our opinion, methods as research instruments and principles as rules of using these instruments exist between subject and object of research. If methods are the researcher’s tools, then the principles of the research are a kind of the ethical and professional code of a scientist. It consists of a number of professional principles which are based on: a) fundamental human ethical norms; b) scientific ethics; c) the special features of a particular science. In its turn, the general scientific principles are applied in various scientific fields, especially in the historical sciences. Among them are the principles of truth supremacy, deideologization, independence, dialectics, specificity, consistency, objectivity, immersion in the historical era (historicism), etс. It is also necessary to note a special role of dialectics in the scientific study, which serves as main principle and at the same time as the general scientific method. As a principle, dialectics is the essence of the world view of a scientist. As a method, dialectics helps the researcher to reveal the essence of phenomena and processes in all contradictions and interrelations of their components. Modern science possesses the wide arsenal of general and special methods. Their choice depends on scientific industry, object, aim and research tasks. A scientist must choose in this arsenal of facilities most effective and rational. If present methods are not enough, he should create the methods and use them accordance with all known methodological principles. The comparative method plays an important role in historical cognition. Firstly, comparison gives the opportunity to realize better the essence of phenomena. Secondly, when comparing a researcher goes beyond a narrow topic, uses additional empirical material and eventually expands his scientific outlook and creative range. The latter is one of the main indicators of the scholar’s scientific qualification. Practical significance. It’s recommended for use by scholars (especially young people) for historical research. Originality. The need to adhere to the main methodological principles in historical studies is substantiated. Scientific novelty. An attempt is made to “rehabilitate” and actualize the concept of “methodological principle”, which includes the ethical standards of a scientist based on universal values formulated in the Bible. Article type: descriptive.
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