Methodology as a tool of historical knowledge: relevant about the obvious


The purpose of the article is to actualize and clarify the main principles and methods of scientific research in their relationship and interdependence (on example of historical sciences). Research methods: analytical, historical, comparative and system-structural. Main results. The article illustrates the relationship of principles with general scientific and specific historical methods. Clarifications are made and examples of their use are given. Concise conclusions. Modern literature on methodology of science is presented mostly by the publications of methodical character. Such character of publications did not require consideration of problem aspects of methodology from their authors, in particular question about interdependence of principles and methods of scientific research. In most works such important concept as “research principles” is not examined practically, with what we cannot agree categorically. In our opinion, methods as research instruments and principles as rules of using these instruments exist between subject and object of research. If methods are the researcher’s tools, then the principles of the research are a kind of the ethical and professional code of a scientist. It consists of a number of professional principles which are based on: a) fundamental human ethical norms; b) scientific ethics; c) the special features of a particular science. In its turn, the general scientific principles are applied in various scientific fields, especially in the historical sciences. Among them are the principles of truth supremacy, deideologization, independence, dialectics, specificity, consistency, objectivity, immersion in the historical era (historicism), etс. It is also necessary to note a special role of dialectics in the scientific study, which serves as main principle and at the same time as the general scientific method. As a principle, dialectics is the essence of the world view of a scientist. As a method, dialectics helps the researcher to reveal the essence of phenomena and processes in all contradictions and interrelations of their components. Modern science possesses the wide arsenal of general and special methods. Their choice depends on scientific industry, object, aim and research tasks. A scientist must choose in this arsenal of facilities most effective and rational. If present methods are not enough, he should create the methods and use them accordance with all known methodological principles. The comparative method plays an important role in historical cognition. Firstly, comparison gives the opportunity to realize better the essence of phenomena. Secondly, when comparing a researcher goes beyond a narrow topic, uses additional empirical material and eventually expands his scientific outlook and creative range. The latter is one of the main indicators of the scholar’s scientific qualification. Practical significance. It’s recommended for use by scholars (especially young people) for historical research. Originality. The need to adhere to the main methodological principles in historical studies is substantiated. Scientific novelty. An attempt is made to “rehabilitate” and actualize the concept of  “methodological principle”, which includes the ethical standards of a scientist based on universal values formulated in the Bible. Article type: descriptive.

Author Biographies

Valentyn Ivanenko, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

Sc. D. in History, Professor, Professor of the Department of Eastern European History, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

Hennadii Kryvchyk, Dnipro National University of Railway Transport Named after Academician V. Lazaryan

Sc. D. in History, Professor, Professor and Head of the Department of Ukrainian knowledge, Dnipro National University of Railway Transport Named after Academician V. Lazaryan

Iryna Nakashydze, Dnipro National University of Railway Transport Named after Academician V. Lazaryan

Ph. D. in Philology, Associate Professor of the Department of Ukrainian knowledge, Dnipro National University of Railway Transport Named after Academician V. Lazaryan


Bantysh-Kamensky, D. N., 2014. Istoriya Maloy Rossii. Ot vodvoreniya slavyan v sey strane do unichtozheniya getmanstva [Little Russia. From settlement of the Slavs in this country till destruction of the Hetmanate]. Reprint of 1903. Moscow: Direkt MEDIA (in Russian).

Barg, M. A., 1984. Kategoriyi i metody istoricheskoj nauki [Categories and methods of historical science]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Bilukha, M. T., 2002. Metodologiya naukovikh doslidzhen [Methodology and of scientific research]. Textbook. Kyiv: ABU (in Ukrainian).

Conan Doyle, Arthur, 1982. Rasskazi [Stories]. Moscow (in Russian).

Epstein, T., and Salinas, C., 2018. Research Methodologies in History Education in The Wiley International Handbook of History Teaching and Learning. Arizona: Wiley.

General Meeting of NASU, 2009. Еtyhnyj codex uchenogo Ukrajiny [Code of Ethics of the Scientist of Ukraine]. April 15, 2009. Available at: (in Ukrainian).

Gulam, A., 2016. Historical research: Tools and Methods. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development, vol. 1, issue 12.

Ibsen, H., 1957. Vrag naroda [An enemy of the people]. Moscow: Iskusstvo Publ., vol. 4, pp. 530–632 (in Russian).

Kahanets, I., 2003. Etnichna osnova khrystyyanstva: gally‑galileans‑tivertsi [The Ethnic Basis of Christianity: galls‑galileans‑tivertsi]. Narodnyy ohlyadach, July 20. Available at: (in Ukrainian).

Karamzin, N. M., 1988. Istoriya Gosudarstva Rossijskogo [History of Russian State]. Moscow, vol. 1 (in Russian).

Kasatonov, V. Yu., 2014. Ekonomika Stalina [The Stalin’s Economy]. Moscow: Institute of Russian civilization (in Russian).

Klyuchevskij, V. O., 1989. Metodologiya russkoj istorii [Methodology of Russian History]. Moscow, vol. 6 (in Russian).

Kovalchuk, V. V., 2004. Osnovy naukovyh doslidgen [Fundamentals of scientific research]. Kyiv: Professional (in Ukrainian).

Kovalchenko, I. D., 2003. Metody istoricheskogo issledovaniya [Methods of historical research]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Kolomijcev, V. F., 2001. Metodologiya istorii (ot istochnika k issledovaniyu) [The methodology of history (from the source to the investigation)]. Moscow: ROSSPEN (in Russian).

Konverskyj, A. Ye., 2010. Osnovy metodolohiyi ta orhanizatsiyi naukovykh doslidzhenʹ [Fundamentals of methodology and organization of scientific research]. Kiev: Center of Educational Literature (in Ukrainian).

Kostomarov, N. I., 2011. Russkaya istoriya v zhizneopisaniyakhyeye glavneyshikh deyateley [Russian history in the biographies of its leading figures]. Moscow: EKSMO (in Russian).

Kryvchyk, G. G., 2017. Osnovni zahalnonaukovi metody doslidzhennia v istorychnykh naukakh [Principal general research methods in historical sciences]. Grani, vol. 20 (in Ukrainian).

Lytvyn, V. M., 2007. Ukrayina: politychna istoriya. XX – pochatok XXI st. [Ukraine: Political History. The 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries]. Kyiv: Parliamentary publishing house (in Ukrainian).

"Na ts'omu stoyu i ne mozhu inakshe" - 497 rokiv tomu Martin Lyuter opublikuvav svoyi "95 tez" ["I stand on this and I can't do otherwise" - 497 years ago Martin Luther published his The 95 theses], 2014., Oktober 31. Available at: (in Ukrainian).

Mogilnickij, B. G., 1989. Vvedenie v metodologiyuistorii [Introduction to the methodology of history]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola (in Russian).

Mochernyj, S. V., 2001. Metodologiya ekomichnogo doslidzhennya [Methodology of economic research]. Lviv: Svit (in Ukrainian).

Mykhailuk, O. V., 2016. Sotsiokulturnyi pidkhid yak metodolohiia istorychnoho doslidzhennia [Sociocultural approach as methodology of historical research]. Ukrainskyj selianyn [The Ukrainian peasant], no. 16 (in Ukrainian)

Nosovskij, G. V., and Fomenko, A. T., 1999. Rus i Rim. Pravilno li my ponimaem istoriju Evropi i Azii? [Do we understand the history of Europe and Asia correctly?]. Moscow: Olympus; OOO “Firma”, AST Publ., vol. 1 (in Russian).

Osvita Ukrainy [Ukrainian education], 2013, October (in Ukrainian)

Petukhov, Yu. D., 2009. Pervoistoki rusov [The beginnings of the Rus]. Moscow: Algoritm (in Russian).

Piatnytska-Pozdniakova, I. С., 2003. Osnovy naukovykh doslidzhen’ u vyshchyy shkoli [Fundamentals of scientific research in Higher Education]. Kyiv: Center of Education Literature (in Ukrainian).

Santsevich, A. V., 1990. Metodika istoricheskogo issledovaniya [Methodics of the historical research]. Kyiv, Naukova dumka (in Ukrainian).

Тоp‑5 politichnih plagiatoriv Ukraijny [Top 5 of Ukrainian political plagiarists], 2011.. Ukrayins'kyy tyzhden' [The Ukrainian week], September 2. Available at: (in Ukrainian).

Fylypenko, A. C., 2004. Osnovy naukovykh doslidzhen u vyshchyy shkoli [Fundamentals of scientific research in Higher Education]. Kyiv: Akademvydav (in Ukrainian).

Sheyko, V. M., and Kushnarenko, N. M., 2008. Organizatsiya ta metodika naukovyh doslidgenʹ [Organization and methodics of the scientific researches]. Kyiv: Znannya (in Ukrainian).

Zakon Bozhyj [Act of God], 2003. Kyiv: Vidavnichyj viddil Pravoslavnoi tserkvy Kyivskogo patriarkhatu.
How to Cite
IVANENKO, Valentyn; KRYVCHYK, Hennadii; NAKASHYDZE, Iryna. Methodology as a tool of historical knowledge: relevant about the obvious. Universum Historiae et Archeologiae = The Universe of History and Archeology = Універсум історії та археології = Универсум истории и археологии ISSN 2664-9950 (Print) ISSN 2707-6385 (Online), [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 5–14, nov. 2020. ISSN 2707-6385. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 dec. 2022. doi:
Theory. Methodology. Historiosophy