Barrows of the Eneolithic-Early Iron Age in the Kalinovka in the Dnieper Nadporozhye


The main aim of this article is description and publication of the materials of two barrows which was explored by the expedition of the Dmytro Yavornytsky National Historical Museum of Dnipro by L. P. Krylova in 1973. They located near the Kalinovka village of the Solonyansky raiion of the Dnipropetrovska oblast. Methods: comparative-historical, typological, chronological, descriptive. Main results. The barrows near the Kalinovka village of the Solonyansky raiion of the Dnipropetrovska oblast belonged to a large burial ground, which was partly destroyed. Only the mound with a sign of triangulation remained was saved at the time of excavation. The mound 1 was build in two construction receptions. The primary mound, fixed on the V-shaped ditch, is filled for the main grave 7 of post-mariupol culture. It is connected with the device of a near-tomb pavement made of wood with separate inclusions of stones and a peculiar covering of the sub-square site with a layer of clay. Both ritual actions are known in a member of post-mariupol burials of the territorial variant of the Steppe Dnipro and the Dnipro Nadporizhzhya. The main markers of the burial rite of the post-mariupol burials are the shape of the burial pit, elongated position of the deceased on the back, orientation to East, the presence of ocher carmine color. The group of pit burials (№№ 3,5,6,9) forms the second cultural-chronological horizon. One of them may be associated with a ring filler, which brought the mound to a modern size. The most recent are burials of zrubna culture (№№ 2,8), in one of which ceramic fragments were found. Cultural identity of grave 1 has not been established. Barrow 2 was 4 m high and 30 m in diameter, was erected for four simultaneous Scythian burials. The embankment was surrounded by a ditch with two bridges at the East and Nord edges, 1,5 m in length and bones of animals from the reed. Outside the pit, vertically standing stones of the cromlech are traced. All the graves are made in the same type of catacomb, which are distributed in the Northern Black Sea in the IV–III centuries BC. The main grave 3 was collective – two adults (a man and a woman) and a child. The surviving in situ parts of the male skeleton testify to the position of the burials elongated on the back, the head to the East. The burial was repeatedly robbed. At the entrance to the chamber, from the inside, a part of the wall of a bronze boiler was found. For the chronological definitions, well-dated categories of inventory (arrowheads and ect.) are involved, allowing to date grave 3 to the second half of the IV and beginning of the III BC. The life-long social status of a man of grave 3 in the hierarchy of the caldron-holders is related to the head of the genus of the lower aristocratic stratum of the Scythian society. The three graves contained various age burials of children, accompanied by ornaments. Their status is ambiguous since may reflect both generic or tribal affinity with those buried in grave 3, and a dependent position relative to the child in grave 3 as a possible heir to a sufficiently high social rank of the father. Concise conclusions. The obtained materials allow to determine the time of occurrence of a burial mound near the Kalinovka village by the Eneolithic in the presence of post-mariupol burials, which mark the appearance of a mound rite in the Steppe and Pre-Dnipro Ukraine. Its further functioning is connected with the Bronze Age, represented by pit and log complexes. The later cultural and chronological layer is formed by the Scythian burials, which reflect the processes of social stratification of the society. Practical meaning. The published materials can be used in generalizing research of the problems of archeology of the Early Iron Age of Ukraine. Scientific novelty. The cultural and chronological features of mound construction and burial complexes near the Kalinovka village of the Solonyansky raiion of the Dnipropetrovska oblast had been determine. Type of article: analytical.

Author Biographies

Zoia Marina, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

Ph. D. in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Historiography, Source Studies and Archival Studies, Faculty of History, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine.

Oleksandra Romashko, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

Ph. D. in Archaeology, Associate Professor of the Department of Historiography, Source Studies and Archival Studies, Faculty of History, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine.


Alekseyeva, E. M., 1984. Busy i podveski [Beads and pendants]. In: Koshelenko, G. A., ed., 1984. Antichnyye gosudarstva Severnogo Prichernomoria. Arkheologiya SSSR. [Ancient states of the Northern Black Sea Region. Archeology of SSSR]. Moscow: Nauka, рp. 237–239 (in Russian).

Boltryk, Yu. V., 2001. Sotsialna stratyfikatsiia Skifii periodu „zolotoi oseni” [The social stratification of the Scythian in the Golden Autumn period]. Mahisterium. Arkheolohichni studii [Magisterium. Аrcheological studios], issue 6, рp. 78–80 (in Ukrainian).

Boltryk, Yu. V., and Fialko, O. Е., 2007. Veretena z dyskopodibnymy nasadkamy zi skifskykh pam’iatok [Spindle with disk shaped nozzles from Scythian monuments]. Arkheolohiia [Archeology], no. 3, рp. 42–47 (in Ukrainian).

Ilinskaya, V. A., and Terenozhkin, A. I., 1983. Skifiya VII–IV vv. do n. e. [The Scythian in the VII–IV с. BC]. Kiyv: Naukova dumka (in Ukrainian).

Kastanaian, E. H., and Arseneva, T. M., 1984. Keramika. In: Koshelenko, G. A., ed., 1984. Antychnye hosudarstva Severnoho Prychernomoria. Arkheolohyia [Ancient states of the Northern Black Sea Region. Archeology]. Moscow: Nauka, рp. 229–232 (in Russian).

Khazanov, A. M., 1975. Sotsialnaya istoriya skifov [The Scythian social history]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Kovaleva, I. F., 1984. Sever Stepnoho Podneprovia v Eneolyte – Bronzovom veke [The Northern Black Sea Region in the Eneolitic and Bronse age]. Dnipropetrovsk: DNU (in Russian).

Kovaleva, I. F., 2001. K vydelenyiu terrytoryalnykh hrupp v postmaryupolskoi culture [By selection of the territorial group of the postmariupol culture]. XV Arkheolohycheskoe Soveshchanye. [The 15th Archeology Meeting]. Articles of the interuniversity scholar conference. Orenburh: OOO “Orenburhskaia Hubernyia” (in Russian).

Krylova, L. P., and Elinov, I. M., 1973. Otchet Dnepropetrovskogo istoricheskogo muzeya za 1973 g. (s. Kalinovka, Privolnoye i s. Vasilyevka Solonyanskogo raiiona). [Report of Dnipropetronsk historical museum in 1973. (v. Kalinovka, Privolnoye, Vasilyevka Solonyanskogo raiionu). Kyiv: Naukoviy arkhіv ІA NANU, no. 1973/6e, 27 pp. 10 pict. 27 tabl. (in Russian).

Krylova, L. P., and Elinov, L. P., 1975. Raskopki kurganov v Dnepropetrovskoy oblasti [The excavations in the Dnipropetrovska oblast]. Arkheologicheskiye otkrytiya 1974 goda [The archeology discovery of 1974]. Moscow: Nauka, рp. 306–307 (in Russian).

Melyukova, A. I., 1964. Vooruzhenie skifov [The weapons of the Scythians]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Mohylov, O. D., 2008. Sporiadzhennia konia skifskoi doby u lisostepu Skhidnoi Yevropy [The equipment of a horse Scythian period in the East European Steppe]. Kyiv; Kam’ianets-Podilskyi (in Ukrainian).

Mozolevskiy, B. N., 1973. Skifskiye pogrebeniya u s. Nagornoye bliz g. Ordzhonikidze na Dnepropetrovshchine. [Scythian tombs near the Nagorne village near the Ordzhonikidze town in the Dnipropetrovska oblast]. In: Terenozhkin, A. I., ed., 1973. Skifskiye drevnosti [Scythian antiquities]. Kiyv: Naukova dumka, рp. 187–235 (in Russian).

Mozolevskyi, B. M., 1979. Tovsta Mohyla [The Tovsta Tomb]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka (in Ukrainian).

Murzin, V. Yu., 1982. Pogrebalnyy obryad stepnykh skifov VII – V vv. do n. e. [The funeral rite of the Steppe Scythians in the VII–V BC]. In: Terenozhkin, A. I., ed., 1982. Drevnosti stepnoy Skifii [Antiquities of the Steppe Scythia]. Kiyv: Naukova dumka, рp. 47–64 (in Russian).

Olkhovskiy, V. S., 1977. Skifskiye katakomby v Severnom Prichernomorye [The Scythian’s tombs in the Northern Black Sea Region]. Sovetskaya arkheologiya [Soviet archeology], no. 4, р. 108–128 (in Russian).

Peters, B. G., 1986. Kostoreznoye delo v antichnykh gosudarstvakh Severnogo Prichernomoria [The bone carving in the Ancient states of the Northern Black Sea Region]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Privalova, O. Ya., Zarayskaya, N. P., and Privalov, A. I., 1982. Dvugorbaya Mogila [The Dvugorbaya Tomb]. In: Terenozhkin, A. I., ed., 1982. Drevnosti Stepnoy Skifii [Antiquities of Steppe Scythia]. Kiyv: Naukova dumka, рp. 148–178 (in Russian).

Romashko, O. V., 2015. Metalevi kazany skifskoi kultury (VII–III st. do n. e.). [Metals cauldrons in the Scythian culture (VII–III с. BC)]. Ph D. dissertation. Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Skoryy, S. A., and Zimovets, R. 2014. Skifskiye Drevnosti Kryma. Materialy odnoy kollektsii. [Scythian antiquities of the Crimea. Materials of the one collection]. Kiyv (in Russian).
How to Cite
MARINA, Zoia; ROMASHKO, Oleksandra. Barrows of the Eneolithic-Early Iron Age in the Kalinovka in the Dnieper Nadporozhye. Universum Historiae et Archeologiae = The Universe of History and Archeology = Універсум історії та археології = Универсум истории и археологии ISSN 2664-9950 (Print) ISSN 2707-6385 (Online), [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 272-284, oct. 2020. ISSN 2707-6385. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 dec. 2022. doi: