Social conflicts in Ukraine XIX century in historiography and sources

Abstract

The aim of the article was to identify the historiographic tradition of highlighting social conflicts in Ukrainian society of the nineteenth century. Using the methods of historiographic analysis and synthesis made it possible to ascertain that in modern Ukrainian historica science the modern period is still considered mainly from the perspective of the concept of Ukrainian national revival, while the specifics of social processes continue to be reproduced at the level of historiography of the ХIX–ХХ centuries. The main result was the consideration of several persistent historiographic myths that explain the relationship between noble landlords and serfs exclusively in the categories of class struggle. The desire to perceive and reconstruct peasant-noble relations only from such an angle of view precluded the factor of chance in these conflicts, their criminal component. Scientific novelty is determined by the fact that on the basis of archival sources an attempt has been made to show the vulnerability of such a perception of landowner-peasant interaction, the variety of causes and motives of social conflicts. It is argued that popular protests were not directly related to the deterioration of the situation of peasants, but were the result, first of all, of a sharp change in their legal and social status. It is noted that in the historiography of the New History of Ukraine the problem of intraclass conflicts was not even posed. This applies to all social groups, which in Ukrainian historiography are shown as extremely consolidated communities. Attention is drawn to the fact that historians often demonstrate a selective approach to sources, leaving behind the scenes episodes of friendly, solidary relations between landowners and peasants, frequent cases of a breakdown of mutual consent, refusal of peasants to be released, and examples of mutual assistance. The conclusion and practical significance of the study is that modern approaches in historical science require abandoning the extremes in interpreting the social history of Ukraine. It is necessary to pay attention to the reconstruction of the social situation, taking into account the specifics of the relationship between all participants in the agrarian process in the prereform Ukrainian village, to take into account a wide range of social relationships, the essence of conflicts and the circumstances of their occurrence. Type of article: analytical.

Author Biography

Tetiana Lytvynova, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

Sc. D. in History, Professor, Professor of the Department of History of Ukraine, Faculty of History, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine.

References

Al. 504/62/1. Chernihiv: Vasyl Tarnovsky Chernihiv Historical Museum.

Dubrovsʼkyy, V., 1927. Znadoby do kharakterystyky obopilʼnykh stosunkiv mezhy pomishchykamy y kripakamy v pershiy polovyni XIX v. [Needs to characterize the mutual relations between landlords and serfs in the first half of the XIX century]. In: Lypsʼkyy, V., Yefremov, S., and Krymsʼkyy, A., eds., 1927. Yuvileynyy zbirnyk na poshanu akademika Dmytra Ivanovycha Bahaliya z nahody simdesyatoyi richnytsi zhyttya ta p"yatdesyatykh rokovyn naukovoyi diyalʼnosti [Anniversary collection in honor of Academician Dmitry Ivanovich Bagaliy on the occasion of the seventieth anniversary of his life and the fiftieth anniversary of his scientific activity]. Kyiv: Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, pp. 990–1000.

Gnedin, D. T., 1893. Moi vospominaniya [My memoirs]. Russkoe bogatstvo [The Russian Wealth], no. 5, pp. 141–164.

Hurzhiy, I. O., 1954. Rozklad feodalʼno‑kriposnytsʼkoyi systemy v silʼsʼkomu hospodarstvi Ukrayiny pershoyi polovyny XIX st. [The schedule of the feudal system in agriculture of Ukraine in the first half of the 19th century]. Kyiv: Derzhpolitvydav URSR.

Ignatovich, I. I., 1963. Krestʼyanskoe dvizhenie v Rossii v pervoy chetverti XIX veka [Peasant movement in Russia in the first quarter of the XIX century]. Moscow: Publishing house of socio-economic literature.

K-ka, K., 1882. Samozvannyy fligelʼ-ad"yutant soldat Semenov [The self-proclaimed wing adjutant soldier Semenov]. Kievskaya starina [The Kiev Antiquity], December, pp. 519–526.

Kotsievskiy, A. S., 1962. Krestʼyanskoe dvizhenie v Yuzhnoy Ukraine v kontse XVIII – pervoy chetverti XIX v. [The peasant movement in southern Ukraine at the end of the 18th – first quarter of the 19th centuries] In: Materialy po istorii selʼskogo khozyaystva i krestʼyanstva SSSR [Materials on the history of agriculture and the peasantry of the USSR]. Moscow: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, issue 5, pp. 224–257.

L[zarevskiy A. M.]., 1888. Iz proshedshey zhizni malorossiyskogo dvoryanstva [From the past life of the Little Russian nobility]. Kievskaya starina [The Kiev Antiquity], October, pp. 149–161.

Lazarevsʼka, K., 1927. Hospodarstvo nezamozhnoho panka na Konotopshchyni v pershiy polovyni XIX v. [The economy of a poor gentry in the Konotop region in the first half of the 19th century]. Ukrayinsʼkyy arkheohrafichnyy zbirnyk [Ukrainian archeographic collection]. Kyiv, vol. 2, pp. VIII–XXI.

Lazarevskiy, A. M., 1902. Odin iz priyateley Gogolya (A. M. Markovich) [One of Gogolʼs friends (A. M. Markovich)]. Chteniya v Istoricheskom Obshchestve Nestora Letopistsa [Readings in the Historical Society of the Chronicler Nestor]. Kiev, vol. 16, part 5, pp. 39–43.

Lazarevsʼkyy, O., 1927. [Spohady pro konotoptsiv] [Memories about Konotopians]. Ukrayinsʼkyy arkheohrafichnyy zbirnyk [Ukrainian archeographic collection]. Kyiv, vol. 2, pp. 56–66.

Litvak, B. G., 1980. Soslovno-gruppovye osobennosti krestʼyanskogo dvizheniya v period krizisa krepostnichestva [Class-group characteristics of the peasant movement during the crisis of serfdom]. In: Pashuto, V. T., ed. in chief, 1980. Sotsialʼno‑ekonomicheskie problemy rossiyskoy derevni v feodalʼnuyu i kapitalisticheskuyu epokhi. Materialy XVII sessii simpoziuma po izucheniyu problem agrarnoy istorii [Socio-economic problems of the Russian countryside in the feudal and capitalist era. Materials of the XVII session of the symposium on the study of the problems of agrarian history]. Rostov-na-Donu: Rostov University Publishing House.

Markovich, A. M., 1894. Istoricheskaya i statisticheskaya zapiska o dvoryanskom soslovii i dvoryanskikh imushchestvakh Chernigovskoy gubernii [Historical and statistical note on the nobility and noble property of the Chernihiv province]. Chernigov.

No 25307–25318. Kompleksnyy fond "Istorychni materialy". Zibrannya istorychnykh dokumentiv XVII–XX st. [Complex fund "Historical materials". Collection of historical documents of the XVII-XX centuries] Fund 2(II). Kyiv: The Manuscript Institute of the The National Library of Ukraine named after V. I. Vernadsky.

Otryvok iz dnevnika poltavskogo pomeshchika (1834–1835 gg.) [Excerpt from the diary of the Poltava landowner (1834–1835)], 1893. Kievskaya starina [The Kiev Antiquity], June, pp. 398–427.

Pavlovskiy, I. F., 1907. K istorii Poltavskogo dvoryanstva. 1802–1902 g. Ocherki po arkhivnym dannym [To the history of the Poltava nobility. 1802–1902. Essays on archival data]. Poltava: Edition of the Poltava nobility, vol. 2.

Pishchevich, A., 1884. Primechaniya Aleksandra Pishchevicha na Novorossiyskiy kray [Notes by Alexander Pishchevich to the Novorossiysk Territory]. Kievskaya starina [The Kiev Antiquity], January, pp. 111–134.

Skott, D., 1996. Oruzhie slabykh: obydennye formy soprotivleniya krestʼyan [Weapons of the weak: mundane forms of peasant resistance]. In: Shanin, T. i Danilov, V. P., eds., 1996. Krestʼyanovedenie. Teoriya. Istoriya. Sovremennostʼ [Peasant studies. Theory. History. Modernity]. Yearbook. Moscow: Aspekt-Press, vyp. 1, ss. 26–59.

Storozhenko, N., 1888. Epizod iz istorii malorusskikh krestʼyan [An episode from the history of Little Russian peasants]. Kievskaya starina [The Kiev Antiquity], June, pp. 76–78.

Suni, R. G., 2010. Affektivnye soobshchestva: struktura gosudarstva i natsii v Rossiyskoy imperii [Affective communities: state and nation structure in the Russian Empire]. In: Plamper, Ya., Shakhadat, Sh., and Eli, M., eds., 2010. Rossiyskaya imperiya chuvstv. Podkhody k kulʼturnoy istorii emotsiy [Russian empire of senses. Approaches to the cultural history of emotions]. Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, pp. 78–114.

Vert, P. V., 2005. Ot “soprotivleniya” k “podryvnoy deyatelʼnosti”: vlastʼ imperii, protivostoyanie mestnogo naseleniya i ikh vzaimozavisimostʼ [From “resistance” to “subversive activity”: empire power, confrontation of the local population and their interdependence]. In: Vert, P., Kabytov, P. S., and Miller, A. I., comp., 2005. Rossiyskaya imperiya v zarubezhnoy istoriografii. Raboty poslednikh let. Antologiya [Russian Empire in foreign historiography. Works of recent years. Anthology]. Moscow: Novoe izdatelʼstvo, pp. 48–82.
Published
2020-10-12
How to Cite
LYTVYNOVA, Tetiana. Social conflicts in Ukraine XIX century in historiography and sources. Universum Historiae et Archeologiae = The Universe of History and Archeology = Універсум історії та археології = Универсум истории и археологии ISSN 2664-9950 (Print) ISSN 2707-6385 (Online), [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 203–212, oct. 2020. ISSN 2707-6385. Available at: <http://uha.dp.ua/index.php/UHA/article/view/64>. Date accessed: 27 oct. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.15421/26190215.
Section
Historiography. Source Study. Special Historical Disciplines