Establishments and organizations promoting exports in the Russian Empire (the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries)

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to describe the state institutions and public organizations promoting exports in the Russian Empire in the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as well as to highlight the activities of similar structures on Ukrainian lands. Research methods: systemic, structural-functional, typological, comparative-historical, problem-chronological, statistical, analytical-synthetic. Main results. In the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the implementation of the export promotion measures was primarily among the tasks of the state bodies of trade and industry (agencies within the structure of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Railways, as well as consuls, government commercial agents, etc.), public representative associations were gradually involved in this process entrepreneurs (industry, territorial and all-imperial unions of the representatives of trade and industrial status), special binational chambers of commerce (Russian-English, Russian-Italian, Russian-French, etc.) are formed, as well as the Russian Export Chamber, as the final part of the system of protection of the export trade interests. Concise conclusions. The system of institutions and export promotion organizations in the Russian Empire, which emerged during the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, turned out to be very colorful and diverse: on the initiative of creation – the government, public, joint (public and governmental); according to its competence – diplomatic, specialized export, a wide range of trade and economic tasks. All of them became an integral part of the economic development of the country, had a significant influence (especially private associations of entrepreneurs) on the formation of the civil society on the basis of self-organization,  enterprise, initiative and responsibility. Practical significance. The materials of the article can form the theoretical basis for developing effective mechanisms for the development of modern domestic exports, increasing the turnover of Ukraine in the world market at the expense of organized representation in the form of binary chambers of commerce and industry, the creation of special export structures and the reformation of existing export missions. Originality. On the basis of the sources of the government and social origin, a wide array of materials of periodicals of the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries organization forms of export promotion in the Russian Empire were generalized and structured, their typology is presented; the peculiarities of institutional processes on the issues of export on Ukrainian lands were traced, their place in general imperial processes is determined, and the high degree of activity of representative organizations of entrepreneurs of Ukrainian lands is shown. Scientific novelty. The look at the organization of foreign trade from the point of view of the activities of state and public institutions is suggested, their development from official forms through the public to the joint public-governmental entities of export promotion is offered. Article type: explanation.

Author Biography

Iryna Shandra, Kharkiv State Academy of Culture

D. Sc (History), Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of History, Museum Studies and Monument Studies, Faculty of Social Communications, Kharkiv State Academy of Culture, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

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Published
2020-10-06
How to Cite
SHANDRA, Iryna. Establishments and organizations promoting exports in the Russian Empire (the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries). Universum Historiae et Archeologiae = The Universe of History and Archeology = Універсум історії та археології = Универсум истории и археологии ISSN 2664-9950 (Print) ISSN 2707-6385 (Online), [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 141–162, oct. 2020. ISSN 2707-6385. Available at: <http://uha.dp.ua/index.php/UHA/article/view/58>. Date accessed: 27 oct. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.15421/26190210.
Section
World History