Historical parallels of the behavioral and psychological characteristics of the Zaporizhian Cossacks and Makhnovets
The article is devoted to the identification of historical features of the Zaporozhia Sich Cossacks and Makhnovites in retrospect. Based on narrative and documentary sources it was made an attempt to characterize the behavioral and psychological features of the Zaporizhian Cossacks and Makhnov units, which operated in different chronological periods – but had a common goal – the Ukrainian liberation movement. Historical memory is of great importance for understanding the worldview of the Ukrainian people, which forms guidelines for future generations. In addition, if the Zaporizhia Cossacks entered our narrative as freedom-loving fighters for Ukrainian freedoms, then the Makhnovists – as anarchists and bandits. What exactly influenced the formation of such an opposite perception? Most likely, it was the “memory of generations”, “heroism” and the testimony of eyewitnesses that created the characters of the Zaporizhia Cossacks and Makhnovites, which we extrapolate to the present. How are historical characters formed, what factors influence these processes, what behavioral characteristics were appropriated to the Zaporozhia Cossacks and Makhnovists? These questions will be considered in this article. The purpose of the study is to update the view of the historical images of the past by analyzing the behavioral traits of the Zaporizhia Cossacks and Makhnovites. A comparative analysis of the characteristics of the Zaporizhia Cossacks of the XVII–XVIII centuries and the Makhnov rebels in combat and non-combat conditions revealed an almost complete coincidence of features. This collective reflexive worldview, reinforced by revolutionary ideas, determined the behavior in action. In the course of the Ukrainian revolution, the insurgents became one of the parties to the conflict between the powerful forces of the reconstruction of capitalism and the Bolshevik model of society. Due to the vagueness of the anarchist model of society, the low discipline and morality of the performers, the army became a source of self-interest, robbery, destruction and terror, and ultimately, a factor in the discrediting of the progressive aspirations of the movement.
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