“My travel abroad will give definitely positive impacts…”: Foreign missions of teachers of higher educational establishments in the 1920s and early 1930s

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to analyze the dynamics of foreign missions of teachers of higher educational establishments of the Ukrainian SSR during the 1920s – early 1930s, the goals and results of their cooperation with the international scientific centers in the context of the communication strategies of scientists in general. Research methods: methods of sociocultural and local analysis have become important for the writing of this article, in particular for the study of individual experiences of international communication of teachers, bringing microhistorical analysis into a single system of interconnection, the transformation of the multiplicity of individual “stories” into a holistic picture, as well as general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, retrospective and historical-comparative. Main results. The analysis of the basic principles of organization of foreign missions of scientists of Ukraine: financial, formal-organizational, by scientific directions and by scientific status. Summary. It has been established that during the 1920s, the previous contacts of scientists with foreign colleagues were maintained, the new contacts were made. The majority of business trips were provided to the representatives of industrial, technical and agricultural verticals. It was noted that only representatives of higher educational establishments of the USSR, mainly Kharkiv, had the opportunity to visit European scientific centers, and only known scientists could constantly maintain contacts with foreign countries. For the postgraduate students and young scientist quotas were set aside for international business trips at the expense of People’s Commissariat of Education, but they were not enough to establish the strong communication with a particular scientific community abroad. It was proved that communication practices were not limited to the scientific cooperation of individual scientists or institutions, they were also the examples of cultural interaction with the general public – teachers were invited to read public lectures in front of diverse audiences, to give speeches at solemn receptions, to visit colleagues abroad at home. The sightseeing programs were also an integral part of this process, helping to establish closer contacts. Practical implication. Results and conclusions can be used to further explore the problem outlined. Originality. The research was carried out a thorough analysis of a large number of archival documents, most of which were first put into circulation. Scientific novelty. Data on the number of business trips received during the 1920s were clarified. The issue of state funding of business trips was first solved, the requirements for candidates for business trips were analyzed, and the achievements of the Ukrainian SSR scientists were evaluated by the international community and the reasons of the decline of communication activity. Article type: empirical.

Author Biographies

Olha Riabchenko, H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University

D. Sc. (History), Professor, Head of the Department of World History, Faculty of History, H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Nadiia Kushlakova, Zahidnodonbaskyi institute of IAPM

D. Sc. (History), Professor, Head of the Department of Social and Humanitarian and Fundamental Training, West Donbas Institute, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, Pavlograd, Dnipropetrovska oblast, Ukraine.

Varfolomii Savchuk, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

D. Sc. (History), Professor, Professor of the Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine.

References

Aleksandrov, D. A., 1996. Pochemu sovetskie uchenye perestali pechatat’sya za rubezhom: stanovlenie samodostatochnosti i izolirovannosti otechestvennoy nauki, 1914–1940 [Why Soviet scientists ceased to be published abroad: the formation of self-sufficiency and isolation of home science, 1914–1940]. VIET, no. 3, pp. 3–24 (in Russian).

Aleksandrov, P. S., Akhiezer, N. I., Gnedenko, B. V., and Kolmogorov, A. N., 1969. Sergey Natanovich Bernshteyn (nekrolog) [Sergey Natanovich Bernstein (obituary)]. UMN, vol. 24, issue 3 (147), pp. 211–218 (in Russian).

Ankety ta zayavy pro dozvil na zakordonni naukovi komandyrovky vykladacham vuziv Ukrayiny. 1927–1928 rr. [Questionnaires and applications for the permission for foreign scientific trips to teachers of Ukrainian universities. 1927–1928]. File 650. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: Tsentral’nyy Derzhavnyy arkhiv vyshchykh orhaniv vlady ta upravlinnya Ukrayiny [Central State Archives of Higher Authorities and Administration of Ukraine] (hereinafter – TsDAVO Ukrayiny).

Bernstein, Serge, 1926. Leçons sur les propriétés extrémales et la meilleure approximation des fonctions analytiques d’une variable réelle, professées à la Sorbonne. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et Cie.

Byulleten’ Ukrainskogo Glavnogo komiteta professional’no‑tekhnicheskogo i spetsial’no‑nauchnogo obrazovaniya [Bulletin of the Ukrainian Main Committee of Vocational and Special Scientific Education], 1924, no. 1 (in Russian).

Do NKO. Sektor nauky [To the PKofE. Science sector]. File 583. Inventory 10. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Do okremoyi valyutnoyi narady Narkomfinu USRR [To the separate currency meeting of the People’s Commissariat of Finance of the USSR]. File 650. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Grishina, N. V., 2018. “…Vozmozhnost’ proekhat’sya i podyshat’ zapadnoevropeyskim vozdukhom”: vzaimootnoshenie nauki i vlasti v sfere zagranichnykh komandirovok v 1920‑e gg. [“… The opportunity to ride and to breathe the West European air”: the relationship of science and government in the field of foreign business trips in the 1920s]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta: Istoriya. Tomsk, no. 51, pp. 28–36 (in Russian).

Ioffe, A. E., 1975. Mezhdunarodnye svyazi sovetskoy nauki, tekhniki i kul’tury 1917–1932 [International relations of Soviet science, technology and culture 1917–1932]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Istoriya Natsional’noyi Akademiyi nauk Ukrayiny 1924–1928 [History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 1924–1928]. Documents and materials, 1998. Kyiv: NBUV (in Ukrainian).

Istoriya Natsional’noyi Akademiyi nauk Ukrayiny 1929–1933 [History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 1929–1933]. Documents and materials, 1998. Kyiv: NBUV (in Ukrainian).

Istoriya Natsional’noyi Akademiyi nauk Ukrayiny 1934–1937 [History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 1934–1937]. Documents and materials, 2003. Kyiv: NBUV (in Ukrainian).

Ivanenko, O. A., 2013 Universytety Ukrayiny v mizhnarodnykh naukovykh zv’yazkakh Rosiys’koyi imperiyi (druha polovyna XIX – pochatok XX st.) [Universities of Ukraine in International Scientific Relations of the Russian Empire (second half of XIX – beginning of XX century]. Kyiv: Instytut istoriyi Ukrayiny NAN Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Kalinicheva, H.V., 1996. Ukrayins’ko‑nimets’ki osvitni i naukovi zv’yazky u 20‑ti – na pochatku 30‑kh rokiv [Ukrainian‑German educational and scientific relations in the 1920’s and in the early 1930’s]. Thesis of PhD dissertation. Donetsk: Donetsk State University (in Ukrainian).

Korotkyy zvit pro robotu komisiyi zakordonnykh komandyrovok pry NKO za 1928–29 r. [Brief report on the work of the Foreign Travels Commission at the NCO for 1928–29]. File 499. Inventory 8. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Kovalenko, V. S., Varhalyuk, V. F., and Stets, N. V., 2014. Akademik Oleksandr Illich Brods’kyy [Academician Olexander Ilyich Brodsky]. Dnipropetrovsk: Vydavnytstvo DNU (in Ukrainian).

Kratkiy otchet o zagranichnoy nauchnoy rabote profesora N. N. Pashe‑Ozerskogo (iyul’ 1928 – yanvar’ 1929 goda) [Brief report on the foreign scientific work of Professor N. N. Pasha Ozersky (July 1928 – January 1929)]. File 648. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Russian).

Kravchuk, M. P., 2000. Notatky z podorozhi [Travel notes]. In: Kravchuk, M. P., 2000. Naukovo‑populyarni pratsi. Kyiv. pp. 178–181 (in Ukrainian).

Kuz’min, M.S., 1971. Deyatel’nost’ partii i sovetskogo gosudarstva po razvitiyu mezhdunarodnykh nauchnykh i kul’turnykh svyazey SSSR 1917–1932 gg. [The activity of the party and the Soviet state in the development of international scientific and cultural ties of the USSR 1917–1932]. Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo Leningradskogo universiteta (in Russian).

Levchenko, V. V., 2012. Vcheni-istoryky Odesy v mizhnarodniy naukoviy komunikatsiyi v 1917–1930-kh rr. [Odessa Historians in International Scientific Communication in the 1917–1930’s.]. Universytet: naukovyy istoryko‑filosofs’kyy zhurnal, no. 3 (47), pp. 11–22 (in Ukrainian).

Lystivka iz arkhivu profesora I. S. Tyelyetova [Postcard from Professor I. S. Teletov’s archive]. Available at: https://auction.ru/offer/frankfurt_na_majne_opernyj _teatr_germanija_rejkh_arkhiv_prof_teletov_rossijskaja_imperija_rsfsr_1927-i78045456035491.html#2> (in Ukrainian).

Materialy pro vidryadzhennya pratsivnykiv nauky za kordon [Materials on business trips of science workers abroad]. File 583. Inventory 10. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Mulyar, I. Yu., 1993. Ukrayins’ko-pol’s’ki mizhderzhavni kul’turni vzayemyny u 20–30 rokakh ХХ st. [Ukrainian-Polish Inter-State Cultural Relations in the 20–30s of the 20th Century]. In: Mizhnarodni zv”yazky Ukrayiny: naukovi poshuky i znakhidky [Ukraine’s International Relations: Research and Findings]. Kyiv, issue 3, pp. 22–29 (in Ukrainian).

Narkomos. Do Ukrholovnauky [People’s Commissariat of Education. Up to Ukrmainscience]. File 648. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Narodnomu Komissaru Prosveshcheniya USSR tov. N. A. Skrypniku [To People’s Commissar of Education of the Ukrainian SSR Comrade O. N. Skrypnik]. File 648. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Russian).

Nauchnomu komitetu. Otchet o rabote Ts. K. Rus’yana za may‑dekabr’ 1923 g. [To Scientific Committee. Report on the work of C. K. Rusyan in May‑December 1923]. File 1205. Inventory 2. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Russian).

Nikolaev, L. P., 2016. Dnevnik sovetskogo professora [Diary of Soviet professor]. In: Kharkіvs’kiy unіversitet u spogadakh yogo vikladachіv ta vikhovantsіv. 1917–1941 [Kharkiv University in the Memoirs of its Teachers and Pupils. 1917–1941]. Kharkiv: VN KhNU Karazin, pp. 252–260 (in Russian).

Organizatsiya sovetskoy nauki v 1917–1925 gg. [The organization of Soviet science in 1917–1925]. Collection of documents, 1968. Leningrad: Nauka (in Russian).

Organizatsiya sovetskoy nauki v 1926–1932 gg. [The organization of Soviet science in 1926–1932]. Collection of documents, 1974. Leningrad: Nauka (in Russian).

Otchet o lichnoy rabote zaveduyushchego kafedroy prikladnoy matematiki pri KhINO S. N. Bernshteyna [Report on the personal work of the head of the department of applied mathematics of KhIofPE S. N. Bernstein]. File 1204. Inventory 2. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Russian).

Plyan zakordonnykh komandyrovok na 1930/31 rik [Plan for foreign missions in 1930/31]. File 583. Inventory 10. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Prokhannya naukovo‑doslidnoyi kafedry movoznavstva pry KhINO pro naukovi komandyrovky 17 sichnya 1925 r. [Request of the Research Department of Linguistics at HINO on scientific business trips in January 17, 1925]. File 752. Inventory 5. Fund166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Protokol 67 zasidannya komisiyi zakordonnykh komandyrovok z 6.03.1929 r. [Minutes 67 of the meeting of the commission of foreign missions from 6.03.1929]. File 494. Inventory 8. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Protokol 85 zasidannya komisiyi zakordonnykh komandyrovok z 28.05.1929 r. [Minutes 85 of the meeting of the commission of foreign missions from 28.05.1929]. File 494. Inventory 8. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Protokol 88 zasidannya komisiyi zakordonnykh komandyrovok z 22.06.1929 r. [Minutes 88 of the meeting of the foreign missions commission from 22.06.1929]. File 494. Inventory 8. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Protokol zasidannya komisiyi zakordonnykh komandyrovok z 4 sichnya 1929 r. [Minutes of the meeting of the commission of foreign missions from January 4, 1929]. File 494. Inventory 8. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

R. G., 1928. Nedelya russkikh istorikov [The Week of Russian historians]. Rul’. Berlin, 12 July (in Russian).

Ryabchenko, O. L., 2000. Kharkivs’kyy instytut narodnoyi osvity im. O. O. Potebni (1921–1930 rr.) [O. O. Potebnya Kharkiv Institute of Public Education (1921–1930)]. Kharkiv: KhNAMH (in Ukrainian).

Sahan, H. V., 1999. Naukovi zv’yazky ukrayins’kykh ta inozemnykh vchenykh u mizhvoyennyy period (1918–1939 rr.) [Scientific relations of Ukrainian and foreign scientists in the interwar period (1918–1939)]. Thesis of PhD dissertation. Kyiv: NAN Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Shevelev, M., 1925. Ob ekskursiyakh za granitsu [About excursions abroad]. Student revolyutsіi, no. 3, p. 29 (in Russian).

Sokhan’ P. S., 1990. Vzaimoobshchenie narodov – vazhneyshaya tendentsiya i zakonomernost’ istoricheskogo protsessa [Mutual communication of peoples – the most important trend and regularity of the historical process]. In: Kul’turnye i obshchestvennye svyazi Ukrainy so stranami Evropy. Kiev, pp. 3–16 (in Russian).

Spysky pretendentiv, bazhayuchykh maty naukovi zakordonni komandyrovky ta lystuvannya Komisiyi zakordonnykh komandyrovok [Lists of applicants wishing to have scientific missions abroad and correspondence of the Foreign Affairs Commission]. File 424. Inventory 9. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Spysok naukovykh komandyrovok za kordon [List of scientific missions abroad]. File 647. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Spysok osib, shcho oderzhaly subsydiyu na zakordonni komandyrovky [List of persons who received subsidies for business trips abroad]. File 647. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Svedeniya o vydannykh nauchnykh komandirovkakh za vremya s 1 aprelya 1922 g. po 1 yanvarya 1925 g. [Information on scientific trips issued during the period from April 1, 1922 to January 1, 1925]. File 724. Inventory 5. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Russian).

Tkachenko, V. V., 2009. Zakordonni vidryadzhennya ukrayins’kykh vchenykh u 20–30-kh rr. XX st. yak viddzerkalennya derzhavnoyi polityky u haluzi mizhnarodnykh naukovykh zv’yazkiv [Foreign missions of Ukrainian scientists in the 20–30’s of the XX century. as a reflection of national policy in the field of international scientific relations]. Naukovi zapysky Kirovohrads’koho derzhavnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni Volodymyra Vynnychenka. Seriya: istorychni nauky. Kirovohrad, issue 12, pp. 172–179 (in Ukrainian).

Tkachenko, V., 2008. Ukrayins’ka nauka u tsaryni mizhnarodnoyi komunikatsiyi (1920–1939 rr.) [Ukrainian Science in the Field of International Communication (1920–1939)]. Ukrayina XX st.: kul’tura, ideolohiya, polityka. Kyiv, issue 14, pp. 364–376 (in Ukrainian).

Ursul, A. D., 1975. Problemy informatsii v sovremennoy nauke. Filocofskie ocherki [Information problems in modern science. Philosophical Essays]. Moscow: Nauka (in Russian).

Ushkalov, L., 2015. Khvyl’ovyy i K°: zustrich z Yevropoyu. (Do dnya narodzhennya pys’mennyka) [Khvylovyj and K°: meeting with Europe. (To the writer’s birthday)]. Available at: http://kharkiv-nspu.org.ua/archives/3964#respond (in Ukrainian).

V Glavnoe upravlenie nauchnimi uchrezhdeniyami USSR [To the Main Directorate of Scientific Institutions of the Ukrainian SSR]. File 650. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Russian).

V Ukrglavnauku [To Ukrmainscience]. File 494. Inventory 8. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Russian).

Vidchyt pro naukove komandyruvannya do Frantsiyi ulitku 1927 roku naukovoho robitnyka O. D. Bahaliy‑Tatarynovoyi [Report on the scientific business trip to France in summer 1927 by a researcher O. D. Bagaliy‑Tatarinova]. File 648. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Yavors’kyy, M., 1929. Dva “tyzhni radyans’koyi istorychnoyi nauky” za kordonom [Two “weeks of Soviet historical science” abroad]. In: Yavors’kyy, M., 1929. Na istorychnomu fronti. Kharkiv: DVU, pp. 216–244 (in Ukrainian).

Z istoriyi mizhnarodnykh zv’yazkiv Ukrayiny: nauka, osvita (XIX – 30‑ti roky XX st.) [From the history of international relations of Ukraine: science, education (XIX – the 1930s)]. Documents and materials, 1999. Kyiv: Instytut istoriyi Ukrayiny NAN Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Zayava profesora I. S. Turkeltauba [Statement of the Professor I. S. Turkeltaba]. File 439. Inventory 5. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Zvit naukovoho vidryadzhennya do Frantsiyi ta Hollandiyi diysnoho chlena naukovo‑doslidnoyi kafedry antropolohiyi ta heohrafiyi L. P. Nikolayeva [Report on the business trip to France and the Netherlands by the full member of the research department of anthropology and geography L. P. Nikolaev]. File 648. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Zvit pro zakordonnu komandyrovku do Nimechchyny diysnoho chlena Kyyivs’koyi kafedry pedolohiyi O. I. Doroshenko [Report on the foreign trip to Germany of a full member of the Kyiv Department of Pedology O. I. Doroshenko]. File 501. Inventory 8. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Zvit sektsiyi prykladnoyi zoolohiyi za 1928/29 rik [Report of the Section of Applied Zoology for 1928/29]. File 6. Inventory 8. Fund R-1427. State Archive of Kharkivska oblast (in Ukrainian).

Zvit za komandyrovku [Business trip report]. File 648. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).

Zvity pro zakordonni komandyrovky naukovykh robitnykiv Ukrayiny. 1927–1928 rr. [Reports on foreign missions of researchers of Ukraine. 1927–1928]. File 648. Inventory 7. Fund 166. Kyiv: TsDAVO Ukrayiny (in Ukrainian).
Published
2020-10-02
How to Cite
RIABCHENKO, Olha; KUSHLAKOVA, Nadiia; SAVCHUK, Varfolomii. “My travel abroad will give definitely positive impacts…”: Foreign missions of teachers of higher educational establishments in the 1920s and early 1930s. Universum Historiae et Archeologiae = The Universe of History and Archeology = Універсум історії та археології = Универсум истории и археологии ISSN 2664-9950 (Print) ISSN 2707-6385 (Online), [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 56-71, oct. 2020. ISSN 2707-6385. Available at: <http://uha.dp.ua/index.php/UHA/article/view/52>. Date accessed: 27 oct. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.15421/26190204.
Section
History of Ukraine