Diplomatic Activity of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria in Ukraine on the basis of the Central State Archives of Public Organizations of Ukraine (TsDAGO)
The article deals with the diplomatic activities of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) in the Soviet Ukraine on the basis of materials from the Central State Archive of Public Organizations of Ukraine (TsDAGO). These are documents of the secret part of the general department of the foundation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. The chronological scope of the study was from 1944 to 1989, from the establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Bulgaria after the 1944 Bulgarian coup d’état until the democratization of the Bulgarian state and society began. The development of Bulgarian-Soviet diplomatic relations, their activity and peculiarities were condi tioned by the subordinate status of Bulgaria, the formation of Moscow’s directive diplomacy, and the high intensity of economic and other ties. Particular attention in them belonged to Ukraine, which became the field of activity of Bulgarian diplomats. Before the opening of the consulates, the coordination of diplomatic activities in Ukraine was conducted from the embassy in Moscow. In 1965, the first Consulate General of Bulgaria was opened in Odessa; in 1971 – in Kiev, which had features – the Consulate General in Odessa was focused on economic issues, the Consulate General in Kiev – the problems of political and international importance. The author shows that the documents of the archive reveal the functional aspects of consulates, as well as their composition, characteristics of Bulgarian diplomats, everyday life, problems of stay and work. The documents include the personalities of some of the general consuls like S. Ralev, N. Minkov, K. Evtimov, I. Radonov. An important feature of the diplomatic activity of the Bulgarian diplomatic missions was their complete control of the Party centers of the USSR and the People’s Republic of Bulgaria. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in these conditions was the executor of the tasks of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the Central Committee of the CPSU, the translator of their position, the informer, while performing traditional functions within the framework of international diplomatic law. The most meaningful for the characteristics of the Soviet/Ukrainian-Bulgarian relations are the conversations with the consuls of Bulgaria, which testify to the dependent position of the country. At the same time, the Bulgarian diplomats were trustees who reported on relations in the consular corps of Kiev, the political views of diplomats, especially criticism of the USSR. The author comes to the conclusion that the diplomatic missions of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria in Ukraine were part of a fairly well-established system of Soviet-Bulgarian relations in general, the study of which continues.
Avilov, V. I. (1977). Oficialnye kontakty diplomatov [Official contacts of diplomats]. Moskva (in Russian).
Bilousova, L. (2015). Materialy Derzhavnoho arkhivu Odeskoi oblasti pro diialnist inozemnykh konsulstv v Odesi v XIX – na pochatku XX st.) [Material of State Archive of Odesa Region concerning the activity of foreign consulates in Odessa in XIX – beginning of the XX]. Mizhnarodni zviazky Ukrainy: naukovi poshuky i znakhidky, 374–390. Kyiv: In-t istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy (in Ukrainian).
Dimitrova, P. (2010). Ivan Stamenov – polnomochnyj ministr Bolgarii i/ili sovetskij agent [Ivan Stamenov is Minister Plenipotentiary of Bulgaria and/or Soviet agent]. Rossiya – Bolgariya: vektory vzaimoponimaniya. XVIII–XXI vv.: Rossijsko bolgarskie nauchnye diskussii, 443–456. Moskva (in Russian).
Dryanovskij, B. (2006). Konsulski predstavitelstva vv Varna (1352–2006) [Consular missions in Varna]. Varna (in Вulgarian).
Manasiieva, I. (2011). Bolhariia ta Ukrainska Narodna Respublika na Brest-Lytovskii myrnii konferentsii: vidstoiuvannia natsionalnykh interesiv [Bulgaria and Ukrainian People’s Republic at the Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference: defending of national interests]. Drynovskyi zbirnyk, 230–238. Kharkiv (in Ukrainian).
Mateeva, M. & Tepavicharov, H. (1989). Diplomaticheski otnosheniya na B”lgariya. 1878-1988. [Diplomatic relations of Bulgaria. 1878–1988]. Sofiya: Iz-vo BAN (in Вulgarian).
Matiash, I. B. (2016). Inozemni konsulstva v Ukraini ta spetsyfika yikh vzaiemodii z natsionalnymy i radianskym zovnishnopolitychnymy vidomstvamy (1917–1923). [Foreign consulates in Ukraine and specificity of its interaction with national and Soviet foreign policy departments]. Ukrainska konsulska sluzhba 1917–1923 rr. yak derzhavnyi instytut: stanovlennia, funktsionuvannia, persona lii, 319–423/ Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Nedev, N. (2007). Tri drzhavni prevrata ili Kimon Georgiev i negovoto vreme. [Three coups d’état, or Kimon Georgiev and his time]. Sofiya (in Вulgarian).
Pavlenko, V. (1993). Diialnist bolharskoi dyplomatychnoi misii v Ukraini (1918–1919) [Activity of Bulgarian diplomatic mission in Ukraine, 1918–1919]. Problemy slovianoznavstva (45), 3–14 (in Ukrainian).
Pavlenko, V. (2010). Ivan Shyshmanov – povnovazhnyi posol Bolharii v Ukraini [Ivan Shishmanov is Plenipotentiary Ambassador of Bulgaria in Ukraine]. Mizhnarodni zviazky Ukrainy: naukovi poshuky i znakhidky (19), 59–70. Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Pavlenko, V. V. (1985). Uchast Ukrainskoi RSR u radiansko bolharskomu spivrobitnytstvi [Participation of the Ukrainian SSR in Soviet-Bulgarian cooperation]. Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Pejcheva, I. (2009). Ukrajna i Bulgariya 1918–1920 (diplomaticheski aspekti) [Ukraine and Bulgaria 1918–1920: diplomatic aspects]. Rusiya i Bulgariya – mezhdu «filstvo» i «fobstvo». Mater. ot nauch. konf. «Rusiya i Evropa prez XX vek» i «Rusiya v blgarskata istoriya», 189–203. Sofiya (in Вulgarian).
Prohrama Mizhnarodnoi naukovoi konferentsii «Dyplomatychni arkhivy yak istorychne dzherelo: vid idei do naukovykh i prykladnykh perspektyv» [Program of International Scientific conference «Diplomatic Archives as historical source: from concept to scholarly and applied perspectives»]. Odesa, 8–10 veresnia 2016 r. (in Ukrainian).
Rossiya Bolgariya. 1879–2004. K 125 letiyu ustanovleniya diplomaticheskih otnoshenij (2004) [Russia-Bulgaria. 1879–2004. To the 125th anniversary of establishment the diplomatic relations]. Moskva: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya (in Russian).
Rupcheva, G. (1983). Blgaro ukrainski vrzki i strudnichestvo prez 60 te i 70 te godini [BulgarianUkrainian ties and cooperation in 1960s and 1970s]. Sofiya (in Вulgarian).
Selyaninov,O.P. (1986).Diplomaticheskie predstavitel’stva [Diplomatic representation]. Moskva: MGIMO (Universitet) (in Russian).
Smolii, V. A. (vidp. red.) (2001). Narysy z istorii dyplomatii Ukrainy [Essays on the history of diplomacy of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Alter-natyvy (in Ukrainian).
Sovetsko bolgarskie otnosheniya i svyazi. Dokumenty i materialy (1987) [Soviet-Bulgarian relations and ties. Documents and material]. T. 3. 1959-1969 gg. Moskva (in Russian).
Sokhan, P. S. (1982). Heorhii Dymytrov i Ukraina [Georgi Dimitrov and Ukraine]. Kyiv: Politvydav Ukrainy (in
Sohan, P. S. (1969) Socialisticheskij internacionalizm v dejstvii. Ukrainskaya SSR v sovetsko bolgarskom ekonomicheskom, nauchno tehnicheskom i kulturnom sotrudnichestve. 1945–1965 gg. [Socialist internationalism is in operation. Ukrainian SSR in Soviet-Bulgarian economic, scientific and technical, cultural cooperation. 1945–1965]. Kyev: Naukova dumka (in Russian).
Sohan, P. S. (1976) Ocherki istorii ukrainsko bolgarskih svyazej [Essays on the history of Ukrainian-Bulgarian
relations]. Kiev (in Russian).
Todorova, R. (2010). Stella Blagoeva – pervaya zhenshina – posol Bolgarii v SSSR. [Stela Blagoeva is a first woman – Ambassador of Bulgaria in USSR]. Rossiya – Bolgariya: vektory vzaimoponimaniya. XVIII–XXI vv.: Rossijsko bolgarskie nauchnye diskussii, 457–464. Moskva (in Russian).
Toshkova, V. (2010). Direktivnaya diplomatiya Kremlya i eyo proekciya v Vostochnoj Evrope. 1945–1989: bolgarskij «adresat» [Kremlin directive diplomacy and its projection in Eastern Europe. 1945–1989: Bulgarian «addressee»]. Rossiya – Bolgariya: vektory vzaimoponimaniya. XVIII–XXI vv.: Rossijsko bolgarskie nauchnye diskussii, 501–526. Moskva (in Russian).
TsDAHOU. - Tsentralnyi derzhavnyi arkhiv hromadskykh obiednan Ukrainy [CSAPOU. – Central State Archives of Public Organizations of Ukraine, hereinafter], f. 1. Ukrainska dyplomatychna entsyklopediia: U 2 kh t. (2004) [Ukrainian diplomatic encyclopedia: in 2 vol.]. T. 1, 2 / Redkol. L. V. Huberskyi (hol.) ta in. Kyiv: Znannya Ukrainy (in Ukrainian).
Valeva, E. L. & Isaeva, O. N. (2013). Makedonistika v SSSR: k istorii politicheskih tabu. Rossiya (SSSR) i Makedoniya: istoriya, politika, kultura: 1944–1991 gg. [Macedonian studies in USSR: to the history of political taboos. Russia (USSR) and Macedonia: history, policy, culture: 1944–1991], 141–158. Moskva.: IS RAN (in Russian).
Vasileva, N. V. (2010). Dokumenty pervyh sovetskih diplomatov v Bolgarii kak istochnik izucheniya sovetskobolgarskih otnoshenij (1934–1937 gg.): po materialam rossijskih arhivov [Documents of first Soviet diplomats in Bulgaria as a source of study of Soviet-Bulgarian relations (1934–1937): based on materials of Russian archives]. Rossiya – Bolgariya: vektory vzaimoponimaniya. XVIII–XXI vv.: Rossijsko bolgarskie nauchnye diskussii, 428–442. Moskva. (in Russian).
Venskaya konvenciya o diplomaticheskih snosheniyah 18 aprelya 1961 g. [The Vienna Convention concerning the diplomatic relations, April 18, 1961]. Retrived from: URL: http://zakon1.rada.gov.ua/laws/
show/995_048 (in Russian).
Vovchuk, L. A. (2014). Diialnist konsuliv inozemnykh derzhav u chornomorsko azovskykh portakh Rosiiskoi imperii (kinets XVIII – pochatok XX st.) [Consuls’ activities of the foreign states in Black Sea and Azov ports of Russian Empire (end of XVIII – beginning of XX c.]: avtoref. dys. na zdobuttia nauk. stupenia kand. ist. nauk: spets. 07.00.02 «Vsesvitnia istoriia». Cherkasy (in Ukrainian).
Zlenko, H. (1993). Pry komu buv poslom ministr: [pro istoryka I. D. Shyshmanova, posla Bolharii pry Tsentralnii Radi] [At whom the Minister was an Ambassador: concerning the I. D. Shishmanov, Historian, Ambassador of Bulgaria at the Central Council / Central Rada]. Knyzhnyk (1), 10–11 (in Ukrainian).