Fortification of the period of the Russo-Turkish war of 1735–1739 near the Vorona river in the Dnipro Nadporizhzhya

Abstract

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739, dozens of temporary ground fortifications were built on the territory of the lower Prydniprovya region to provide communication with the Ukrainian line of Russian troops operating in the lower reaches of the Dnipro and the Crimea. The same is true for the left bank of the cataracted part of the Dnipro river flow, along which the Dnipro army passed to the Crimea during the campaign of 1736, which resulted in the formation of Russian military outposts on this territory. These fortifications are still poorly explored both in terms of historiography and archaeology. Many of them are still not localized on the modern geographical map. Furthermore, the conditions of their topographic placement and features of the engineering configuration are not clarified. The current situation concerning this issue makes a comprehensive study on the events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739, and especially its initial stage impossible. In particular, it is impossible to reconstruct the path used by the Dnipro Army during the Crimean campaign of 1736 without localization of field fortifications, as well as to study such important aspects as the organization of its supply and the establishment of courier communication with the Ukrainian line. The purpose of the article is to analyze the published written sources concerning the processes related to the construction and operation of the fortification of the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739, located on the territory of the Dnipro Nadporozhzhya, near the Vorona river, as well as to determine the location of this fortification using the cartographic material and historiographical descriptions and to clarify the peculiarities of its engineering configuration. Research methods: systemic structural, chronological, geographical, comparative, descriptive. Core results: the article shows the reasons for the construction and functioning of the sconce built on the right bank of the Vorona River, the left tributary of the Dnipro river. The chronological framework for the existence of this fortification is specified; its role in the events of the Crimean campaign of 1736 is determined, and the composition and number of the garrison located in it are clarified. Through the use of cartographic material of the first half of the 18th century and the end of the 19th – first half of the 20th century, the location is determined and the conditions of topographic placement of the remains of the studied fortification before the construction of the Dnipro Hydroelectric Station Dam in the early 1930s are clarified. The features of fortification of this temporary field entrenchment are defined. The practical significance of the materials obtained in this research lies in the possibility of their further use in writing scientific articles and generalizing works on the history of Ukraine and Eastern Europe in the first half of the 18th century. Scientific novelty: issues related to the emergence and functioning of the fortification near the Vorona river at the initial stage of the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739 are considered for the first time in historiography. The location is determined and the features of the engineering configuration of this defensive structure are clarified. Furthermore, three manuscript plans of the late 19th – first half of the 20th century, revealed in the funds of Dmytro Yavornytsky National Historical Museum of Dnipro, are introduced into scientific circulation. Type of article: research.

Author Biography

Dmytro Filimonov, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

Postgraduate student of the Department of Historiography, Source Studies and Archival Studies, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Dnipro, Ukraine

References

Bayov, A.K., ed., 1904. Prikazy grafa Minikha za 1736–1738 gg. [The orders of Count Minich for 1736–1738 years]. Sbornik voyenno-istoricheskikh materialov [Collection of military and historical materials]. St. Petersburg, issue 14 (in Russian).

Bayov, A.K., 1906. Russkaya armiya v tsarstvovaniye imperatritsy Anny Ioannovny. Voyna s Turtsiyey v 1736–1739 gg. Pervyye tri goda voyny [The Russian army during the reign of Empress Anna Ioanovna. The war with Turkey in 1736–1739. The first three years of the war]. St. Petersburg, vol. 1 (in Russian).

Bushuyev V., 1924. Dniprove porizhzhja v arkheologhichnomu vidnoshenni [Dnieper thresholds in archaeological terms]. Chervonyj shljakh: ghromadsjko-politychnyj i literaturno-naukovyj misjachnyk [The Red Way: socio-political and literary-scientific month]. Kharkiv: State рublishing нouse of Ukraine, no. 11–12 (20–21), рр.140–152 (in Ukrainian).

Voyenno-topograficheskaya karta Yekaterinoslavskoy gubernii. M 1:126000 (v 1 dyuyme 3 versty) [Military topographical map of Ekaterinoslav province. 1:126,000 (3 versta per 1 inch)], 1861. St. Petersburg (in Russian).

Karta predprinyatykh v 1736 godu ot Armei Yeya Imperatorskogo Velichestva protiv turok i tatar pobedonosnykh voyennykh deystviy mezhdu Donom i Dneprom i pri onykh rekakh, 1736 g. [Map taken in 1736 by Her Majesty Army against the Turks and Tatars victorious hostilities between the Don and Dnieper rivers and other], 1736. Moscow: The Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. File 12, part 2, inventory 1, coll. 92 (in Russian).

Laskowski, F. F., 1865. Materialy dlya istorii inzhenernogo iskusstva v Rossii. Opyt inzhenernogo iskusstva posle imperatora Petra Í do imperatritsy Yekateriny II [Materials on the history of engineering in Russia. Experience in engineering after the Emperor Peter I to Catherine II]. St. Petersbourg: Printing house of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, part 3 (in Russian).

Laskowski, F. F., 1866. Karty, plany i chertezhi k 3-y chasti materialov dlya istorii inzhenernogo iskusstva v Rossii [Maps, plans and drawings to the 3d part of the materials for the history of engineering in Russia]. St. Petersbourg: Printing house of the Imperial Academy of Sciences (in Russian).

Manstein, H.G., 1875. Zapiski Manshteyna o Rossii 1727–1744 [Manstein’s Notes about Russia 1727–1744]. Prilozheniye k “Russkoy starine” [Annex to the “Russian antiquity”]. St. Petersburg: Printing house V. S. Balasheva (in Russian).

Marina, Z. P., and Filimonov, D. G., 2009. Do pytannya pro mistseznakhodzhennya slobody ta perevoziv bilya Ust’-Samars’koho retranshementu (za pysemnymy ta arkheolohichnymy danymy) [On the issue of settlement and ferry location near the Ust-Samarian entrenchment (according to the written and archaeological sources)]. Muzeynyy Visnyk [Museum Bulletin]. Zaporizhzhya, no. 9, рр. 65–81 (in Ukrainian).

Myshetsky, S.M., 1851. Istorija o kazakah zaporozhskih, kak onye izdrevle zachalisja, i otkuda svoe proishozhdenie imejut, i v kakom sostojanii nyne nahodjatsja, sochinennaja ot inzhenernoj komandy [The story of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, how they were conceived from ancient times, and where they came from, and in what state they are now, composed by the engineering team]. Odessa: in the city typography (in Russian).

Myshlaevsky, A. Z., ed., 1897. Vsepoddanneyshiye doneseniya grafa Minikha. Moskovskomu otdeleniyu Arkhiva Glavnogo shtaba. Ch. 1: Doneseniya 1736 i 1737 godov: po spisku poruchika zapasa armeyskogo kaznacheya M. P. Prokopovicha [The most loyal reports of Count Minich to Moscow branch of the Archives of General Staff. Part 1: Reports of 1736 and 1737 according to the list of the army reserve lieutenant treasurer M. P. Prokopovich]. Sbornik voyenno-istoricheskikh materialov [Collection of military and historical materials]. St. Petersbourg: Publication of the Main Headquarters, issue 10 (in Russian).

Plan zemljanogo ukreplenija v sele Voronom, Ekaterinoslavskoj gub., Novomoskovsk. u., v 1/2 versty ot usad’by Andreja Mihajlovicha Miklashevskogo [Plan of earthworks in the village of Voronoe, Yekaterinoslavskaya province, Novomoskovsk. at., 1/2 verst from the estate of Andrei Mikhailovich Miklashevsky]. Dmytro Yavornytsky Dnipropetrovsk National History Museum, arch. no. 129/КН-38118 (in Russian).

Plan kriposty bilya s. Voronoho [A. M. Myklashevs’koho] [The Plan of the fortress near the Voronoe village [A. M. Myklashevsky]]. Ibid., arch. no. 808/КН-38796 (in Ukrainian).

Plan zemli Voronovskoj, Novomoskov. s naneseniem kurganov [The Plan of Voronovskaya land, Novomoskovsk with mounds]. Ibid., arch. no. 814/КН-38802 (in Russian).

Polnoe Sobranie Zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii: Sobranie pervoe: S 1649 po 12 dekabrya 1825 goda [Complete Collection of the Laws of the Russian Empire: First Collection: From 1649 to December 12, 1825]. 1830. St. Petersburg: Printing house of the 2nd Branch of His Imperial Majesty’s own сhancellery, vol. 5: 1713–1719 (in Russian).

Repan, O., Starostin, V. and Harlan, O., 2008. Palimpsest. Korinnja mista: poselennja XVII–XVIII stolitj v istoriji Dnipropetrovsjka [The roots of the city: the settlements of the 17th-18th centuries in the history of Dnipropetrovsk]. Kyiv: Ukrainian propylei (in Ukrainian).

Starik, O., and Serdyuk, M., 2010. Kolektsiya kozats’koyi doby v arkheolohichnykh fondakh Dnipropetrovs’koho istorychnoho muzeyu im. D. I. Yavornyts’koho (zahal’na kharakterystyka) [Collection of the Cossack era in the archaeological collections of D.  I. Yavornytsky Dnepropetrovsk Historical Museum. (general characteristics)]. Novi doslidzhennya pam’yatok kozats’koyi doby v Ukrayini: zb. nauk. st. [New studies of monuments of the Cossack era in Ukraine: collection of scientific articles]. Kyiv, issue 19, pp. 158–161 (in Ukrainian).

Filimonov, D., 2006. Do pytannya pro mistseznakhodzhennya Ust’-Samars’koho retranshementu. [On the question of the location of the Ust-Samarian entrenchment]. Novi doslidzhennya pam’yatok kozats’koyi doby v Ukrayini: zb. nauk. st. [New studies of monuments of the Cossack era in Ukraine: collection of scientific articles]. Kyiv, issue 15, pp. 38–43 (in Ukrainian).

Filimonov, D. G., 2016. Lokalizatsiya na terytoriyi Oril’s’ko-Samars’koho mezhyrichchya dvokh pol’ovykh redutiv periodu rosiys’ko-turets’koyi viyny 1735–1739 rr. [Localization on the territory of Orel-Samara interfluve of two field redoubt during the Russo-Turkish war of 1735–1739]. Visnyk Dnipropetrovs’koho natsional’noho universytetu. Seriya: Istoriya ta arkheolohiya [Dnipropetrovsk University Bulletin. History & Archaeology]. Dnipropetrovsk, no. 24, pp. 129–141 (in Ukrainian).

Yavornytskyі D.  I., 1989. Dniprovi porohy [Dnieper rapids]. Dnipropetrovsk: Promin’ (in Ukrainian).

Yavornytskyi, D., 1991. Istoriya zaporoz’kykh kozakiv [History of Zaporozhye Cossacks]. In 3 vols. Kyiv: Scientific Тhought, vol. 3 (in Russian).

Yavornytskyі D.  I., 2005. Zaporozhzhya v zalyshkakh starovyny i perekazakh narodu [Zaporozhye in the remnants of ancient times and folk tales]. Dnipropetrovsk: ART-PRESS, рart 1 (in Russian).
Published
2022-07-18
How to Cite
FILIMONOV, Dmytro. Fortification of the period of the Russo-Turkish war of 1735–1739 near the Vorona river in the Dnipro Nadporizhzhya. Universum Historiae et Archeologiae, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 37–49, july 2022. ISSN 2707-6385. Available at: <http://uha.dp.ua/index.php/UHA/article/view/161>. Date accessed: 10 aug. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.15421/26210418.
Section
History of Ukraine