Anti-religious policy of the Bolshevik government in the early 1920s (on the example of Roman Catholics of Katerynoslav)

Abstract

The aim of the article: to analyze the conditions of existence of the Roman Catholic community of Katerynoslav in the first years of the establishment of Bolshevik power. Methods: historical-genetic, historical-systemic. The main results: the attitude of the Bolsheviks to the Church and the methods they used in their anti-religious activities in the early 20s of the twentieth century is highlighted; the factors influencing the attitude of the authorities to the Roman Catholics of Katerynoslav are revealed; the measures taken by the Bolsheviks to influence the Poles and Lithuanians living in the provincial city at that time are studied, as well as the results of this activity. Concise conclusions: The destruction of religion was part of the strategic plans of the Bolsheviks, and after the establishment of their power, they launched an attack on the Church. In the early 1920s, the measures included repression, looting of churches, and moral pressure on the faithful. The initiation of the persecution was the Bolshevik Party. The Extraordinary Commission took an active part in this process; it gave effective methods of realization of the tasks, and also carried out repressions. The position of the Poles was influenced by the relations of the Soviet state with Poland. In 1920, they were significantly complicated by the war between these countries. The leaflets issued by the Bolsheviks called for the overthrow of the state system and terrorist activities in Poland. The policy of the Soviet government, repressive activities against the Church (including the RCC), and aggressive rhetoric towards Poland pushed local Poles to leave for their historical homeland. The attempt to Sovietize the refugees was not very successful, and in 1921–1922 representatives of the nations that formed the Roman Catholic environment of the provincial center left Katerynoslav in echelons. The authorities also tried to export revolutionary ideas to neighboring countries. Not only refugees but also the Poles who lived in the city before the war went to Poland. Many members of this national minority in Katerynoslav did not belong to the parishioners of the church in the mid-1920s, which means that they were under the influence of anti-religious propaganda or were afraid to openly profess their faith. Practical meaning: the results of the research can be an integral part of the study of the history and religion of national minorities at the national level. The scientific novelty of the article is that the author conducts a study of the peculiarities of living conditions of the Roman Catholics in Ekaterynoslav in the early 20s of the twentieth century for the first time. Type of article: research.

Author Biography

Natalia Mosiukova, National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine

Ph. D. in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of Philosophy and Political Science, National Metallurgical academy of Ukraine

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Published
2021-12-12
How to Cite
MOSIUKOVA, Natalia. Anti-religious policy of the Bolshevik government in the early 1920s (on the example of Roman Catholics of Katerynoslav). Universum Historiae et Archeologiae, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 32–42, dec. 2021. ISSN 2707-6385. Available at: <http://uha.dp.ua/index.php/UHA/article/view/113>. Date accessed: 22 jan. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.15421/26210407.
Section
History of Ukraine